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GUARDIAN BOOKS OF THE YEARThe familiar image of the British in the Second World War is that of the plucky underdog taking on German might David Edgerton's bold compelling new history shows the conflict in a new light with Britain as a very wealthy country formidable in arms ruthless in pursuit of its i David Edgerton's book turns popular myths about Britain in the Second World War upside down and inside out But a word of warning firstHe is making a point about history and not giving us a narrative so it would help if you already had some understanding of the course of the second world war and its past historiographyThere are times when the author revels in his piling up of data to prove his points which are very many so that some chapters reuire a fair amount of concentration of effort to understand fullyBut I do not want to put you off the book because it is informative sometimes downright exciting as it shifts mental models and well illustrated with tables maps and extensive notesWhere to begin? I was persuaded by the sheer logic of the book that much of what I thought was true was not true it has even changed my view of contemporary political prioritiesHe is persuasive that the British Empire was never not going to win the Second World War with perhaps my own caveat that a lucky invasion and a bunch of uislings might have made it a very different EmpireThe scale of the trading and financial muscle of the Empire with its Dominions four of the five 'Big Eyes' of global surveillance today meant that what became the United Nations would conuer in the endBy the end of the book one might even feel sorry for Germany if it were not for the vile nature of its regime blockaded led by a blockhead self murderously running itself into the groundThere is of course the story here of how the US displaced the Empire as hegemonic Western power but Edgerton is persuasive that this was not Britain declining but the US making use of spare capacityThe difference between the two powers in 1939 was that the UK was an efficient global trading operation which it still is and the US had still not found a way to mop up the mass unemployed of 1929War permitted that massive surplus capacity to be employed There is a fascinating transfer of capability from the UK to the US where it becomes clear that the US is simply effective at utilising assetsThis is one of the points that come out of the book Britain was so prosperous that it was monstrously wasteful War is wasteful of course but the level of waste here was something elseWhat was happening was that Churchill and his cronies exemplified a peculiar form of Liberal Militarism still operative today that created what amounted to a warfare stateBut the liberal part of that apparent oxymoron included an evident reluctance or perhaps political inability to expend human life with the gay abandon of the Central and East EuropeansEdgerton has written elsewhere on this idea of a Liberal Militarist warfare state beyond categories of Right and Left perhaps to the Right that saw total victory arising out of machinesWhat this meant was that the right application of technology to wielding death on your opponents would permit the minimum death to your own side and the minimum disruption of the good life at homeHe makes clear that it was rather a 'good war' for Britons compared to what was experienced on the Continent Not for some individuals or families perhaps but undoubtedly for many young workersIn general people were well nourished and the bombing campaigns were isolated to a relatively short period and area When they came they were horrific but most people most of the time were secureBut it was no welfare state the poor the young the old and the vulnerable were shunted aside to ensure that war workers and the military had the best of what was goingSimilarly the death rates for troops were far less than the bloody milling going on from the suburbs of Moscow to Berlin Bomber crews and merchant navy men were the worst affected with significant lossesAnd that in itself tells you something one set of men were expended to wreak greater death largely on civilians and the other lost their lives ensuring their fellows were well nourished and armedThe US was to bring to a higher level this Anglo Saxon belief in technology the atom bomb and B 52 as assurance against sending voters' kids too lightly to their deathsThis attitude is very much part of what it is to be a modern liberal in the age of democracy and it empowered the State to allocate vast sums to armament and social control for decades to comeNot that any liberal has ever hesitated to send another father's son to their death if it was 'the right thing to do' but only that it was deemed better to have your enemy and his mother killed remotelyIf the British Empire was never going to be defeated and the German regime is now reliably seen as economically flawed at its very core this was because it was never aloneThe Empire was not just a formal empire but an informal network of global relationships Much of the world was dependent on patterns of trade and finance set by London and London dictated its termsThe UK was uite capable of shifting its supply around from a blockaded Europe to the rest of the world in a way impossible to Hitler as much as Napoleon and to do so very uicklyEuropean dictators have to grab territory drive desperately for oil fields or wheat lands whereas the great Anglo Saxon empires have simply sent a ship theirs or one purchased with their geldEuropeans within the blockade and third world suppliers of single crops that were no longer a priority suffered terribly The Bengal Famine of 1942 was the fruit of a callous shift of shipping prioritiesThe Empire treated much of the world as private property reuired to maintain the homeland and war then became a means of creating a strong national state that could disregard the interests of its partnersEdgerton is persuasive that the war represents a transition not only from British to American global dominance but also from an imperial mind set to a nationalist mind set But Britain was 'never alone' the rhetoric was nonsense and should be seen to be nonsense The British were just the self regarding beneficiaries of their own past piracies In the end the myths were necessary to create a certain spirit or morale helped by the fact that the Nazis really were rather vile Perhaps we did not do bad things simply because we did not need toBut we did This brings us to the peculiarly Anglo Saxon contribution to the long litany of man's inhumanity to man the strategic bombing campaign where the British made a fetish out of area bombingThe brutality of this is fascinating Though we are brought up on Guernica in fact the Nazis retaliated rather than initiated bombing and bombing of civilians was absolutely central to British strategyIndeed it is interesting that it was the Americans that insisted on trying to be precise and break down transport and oil supply while the horrible Bomber Harris insisted on area bombingIt was all part of this idea that war could be won by technology so minimising harms to the homeland Edgerton is particularly good on this showing not merely a warfare state but an aviation stateThe interwar ideology of world peace being enforced by a British imperial air force links us directly with the mentality behind atomic warfare and the repulsive bombing campaigns of VietnamThe same mentality is behind 'shock and awe' drones and surveillance as means of both crushing alternative military structures and controlling errant asymmetrical tribes people increasingly ourselvesThe Liberal Militarism precursor to neo conservatism and Blairismo of empire is matched by its wastefulness and its intense interest in technology as weapon of state expansion and social controlI think you are beginning to see the importance of this book because alongside the work of Peter Hennessy on the Cold War State and many others we have a picture of the democratic state that disturbsHuge resources are made available to the State justified by war or emergency that can be applied not merely to winning the war but to controlling how we see that war This is totalitarianism liteEdgerton does not spend a lot of time on culture his metier is science and technology but his few examples show how the arts contributed to our own contemporary false consciousness about our pastWe need to start thinking about this His and other historians' remorseless engagement with the facts tell us a very different picture about the Second World War than we had been led to believeWe leave the book with a profound sense of confusion because he has dismantled a structure of belief like Nietzsche killing God but has not given us alternative structure He takes no ideological position so perhaps we have to we might go back to the myth and say simply that this was what we were led to believe and now we have become what we believeThis would be no different from any member of any religion who has inherited norms which scholarship will dismantle easily enough but which the believer chooses not to listen toWhat we have done is inherited a national religion as perhaps all nations have done and the new facts reuire either forgetting or a reform of our beliefCertainly the book has led me to 'fix' some revisions of belief that were already in my mind but has produced some new onesThanks to Hennessy and others I already knew that the United Kingdom had become a warfare state in stages throughout the last century and that welfare was a poor relation made necessary by political pressuresI was never sold on the country having a well functioning democracy so the account of Churchill's cronyism as oligarchical as anything to be found in Putin's Russia did not surprise mePerhaps the historical depth of liberal internationalism as Liberal Militarism was new to me but not wholly a surpriseAfter all I had when young sat in on private meetings at which noble lords and industrialists had plotted with surety the defeat of the Left precisely in order to save the nuclear deterrentAnd finally no one but a fool does not understand imperialism and capitalism as essentially exploitative although without necessarily believing that the exploitation cannot be progressive and modernisingNo what was new was the realisation of just how much the 'ordinary folk' of Britain the British working class had been bamboozled about their own condition and in so many different waysThe worst culprit is ironically the Party in which I spent much of my life the Labour Party Although it did triumph in 1945 and it did shift into a welfare agenda it never shifted out of the warfare agenda excepting perhaps under Harold Wilson and then in its time of troubles in the 1970sIt was brought into Government by Churchill as a political manouevre to counter the free trade and peace elements on the Right and was largely cover for his own Liberal Militarism and imperialismFrom that point on although it captured the State through elections in fact the State captured it culminating in the final indignity of a full blown Liberal Militarist running it like a dictatorship in Blair1926 may have proven decisively that the revolutionary path was not possible for the Left but Ramsey Macdonald and then Attlee both hammered nails of different sorts into the coffin of left democracyMacdonald toadied to the prevailing vision of economics when he had no need to and Attlee far forgivably sacrificed democracy for the power to make material changes in the lives of the peopleSimilarly the book helps to lay to rest another set of malign myths that come from the closed elite that seems to decide how we are to think as well as live about EuropeThe logic of the European Union for Europeans is profound in the context of world war Any power that conuers Europe by force destroys Europe by triggering blockades on one side and Russia on the otherFrom this perspective unifying Europe and turning it into a single market by consent halts competition for internal imperial control and ensures that scarcities can be ameliorated by internal tradeBut for the United Kingdom and for Russia the same logic does not apply Let Russia speak for Russia but the United Kingdom only survives as an island through global and not just European tradeInside Europe the United Kingdom is just a Province outside Europe it is a wealthy Informal Empire The welfare state depends on it being than a Province It reuires the City and exportsJust as the Labour Party needs to be removed or become the voice of the people so the United Kingdom needs to recognise that what is in the interest of the people is independence of EuropeThe elite that blundered into war in 1914 and in 1939 is still with us It still has a Liberal Militarist ideology and it still buys off any attempt to uestion its rule in just the way it has always doneIt is committed to its own survival by selling out a rather limited democracy and our independent cultural tradition to a bureaucracy that reproduces its own desire for waste warfare and a trough Neither world war was necessary to the British people unless you are a card carrying liberal internationalist but that is what these people are The same people took us to edge on the Ukraine only this monthThe same bureaucrats and intellectuals from the same network of schools and universities with the same editors run rough shod over both the wealth producers in business and the 'workers'One of the tricks is to divide us aggressively into right and left as if the worker and the financier do not actually have in common as wealth creators than either do with those who live high on the tax hogWorkers who won't work but want a regular wage and capitalists who are pig greedy are minorities we can deal with but a free nation is one with absolute euality of opportunity and reward for effortBut back to the book where none of this politics exists just straight talking on the facts that stands in a long tradition of independent historical thought that goes back to Angus CalderEach generation of historian I admire Richard Overy in this respect too is stripping way the mythology of power and allowing us to make choices about the narrative that works for usIncreasingly one sees accepted history as a form of belief a religion of identity and the best historians of our time as critics of culture whose impact is like that of philosophers on religionIdentities have become fluid in the internet age So they should be matters of choice and not imposition but identities have not gone awayJust as someone might choose to be transgender another might reaffirm their traditional masculinity Someone might choose to be a Wiccan and another affirm an existential belief in the Lord Jesus ChristSo it is with national identity it is a thing that we inherit and then we have to choose what to do with the inheritance adopt what we have been given reject or adapt it to new conditionsI hope the new fact based and humane historiography of war empire and nationality enables us to begin to analyse our position without falling into the trap of ideologyWhat are our own core values what is the good and how do these values related to what I have been told it is to be as I choose to be English British or even EuropeanEdgerton's book alongside others reaffirms that what it is to be British is my choice on the facts and I choose to be enraged at the incompetence and waste of our ruling elite and at the warfare stateHowever I also choose to be deeply impressed by the way the people of a very small island created a global trading system that on balance if callously brought a positive modernity to the worldI also choose to think that the suppressed and repressed radical democratic tradition of the English remains fundamental to reviving Britain as a peaceful prosperous and humane nationAn English Left shorn of ideology critical of power engaged with global wealth creation and abandoning liberal internationalism and techno warfare as false and cruel may be far away but it can beIf we come to see an euivalent Right that is individualistic and democratic and competes for space with neo socialism in a free independent Britain this will also be down to good historiography

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Le others paid a great price Britain's War Machine by putting resources machines and experts at the heart of a global rather than merely imperial story demolishes some of the most cherished myths about wartime Britain and gives us a very different and often unsettling picture of a great power in action On the way back from a trip to the UK I dipped into the bookstore at the airport and couldn't resist a 3 for 2 Sonderangebot The main inspiration was David Edgerton's book on the mobilisation of the Empire in Britain's War Machine I got excited by the tables of British and overseas production as well as the maps of oil pipelines and major centres of war production Topping that is the list of highest awards from the Royal Commission of Awards for Inventions Edgerton weaves contemporary and newly made graphics very well and I look forward to reading it some day

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Nterests and sitting at the heart of a global production systemThe British indeed Churchillian vision of war and modernity was challenged by repeated defeat by less well euipped enemies Yet the end result was a vindication of this vision Like the United States a powerful Britain won a cheap victory whi BY PERMISSION FROM wwwpaper trailscaOriginal Post shallow review I suppose – mostly summary but such a great book I've been reading while knocking around NZ one last time in my surf van and today – Lest We Forget – I can't resist throwing it up hereWith a blizzard of fact and annecdote Edgerton here demolishes the traditional narrative the British have told themselves that after the fall of France amid the Battle of Britain under threat of Hitler's unrealized OP SEALION invasion plans in 1941 they stood “alone” as a plucky underdog holding out against ruthlessly efficient mechanized Nazi blitzkrieg In reality Britain was far from alone as Canadian know well believing this story reuires writing Canada out of the war along with India British Africa and the rest of the roughly one uarter of the manpower of the human race It rests on a very twentieth century and very English assumption that only white peoples in Europe countries count strategicallyIf legeandary Kiwi born catoonist David Low is a good example it also rested on the very colonial England worship of the rest of us 'Britons' elsewhere in defferential perennially small minded uarters of the empire If the Anglo American Atlanticists have written us out of our central role in world history we've only been too keen to helpMost bizarrely it rests on a peculiarly un English underrating of the strategic weight of sea power the Royal Navy was never seriously challenged by Germany and as long as it controlled Europe's coastline it was the Europe under economic siege not the British Isles The U boat threat famously at least among RCN sailors claimed by Churchill as “the only thing which really worried” him can be disposed of with some solid data for the reliability of food imports; the U Boats were always threat than blow the marine euivalent of V1 and V2 rocketry Their destruction was spectacular but not strategically decisive in a war attrition Allied shipyards were always certain to win Meanwhile the RN home fleet's blockade of Nazi Europe put far serious constraint on Axis access to resources as the economic data here bear out and was so complete it was never even contested even by the great Bismark Perhaps modern media are part of the problem battlefleets that rarely fight suffer from an availability problem to radio listeners; we don't hear about them much so they don't seem to matter In fact strategic outcomes are not incremmental sum of operations war is not tennis and the winner of the most battles does not necessarily win overall at all It's unwise to make strategy by publicity – but that is generally the scheme of democracies' historiography at very leastIn reality George VI's realm has to be graded the favourite to prevail throughout the conflict and was much stronger than generally realised both in its materiel on hand the industrial mass of war production and technological sophistication On this too Low's typical chagrin another 1940 cartoon juxtoposing planes and tanks with a threadbear infantryman lists the score as “Machines 1 Heroes 0 ” was merely compounding the conventional wisdom already shared by the Whitehall elite – and as Edgerton documents reflected in British resources allocation for years already The reason the Home Guard was so notoriously short of rifles was not unreadiness but the higher priority of heavy mechanisation in lieu of small arms Our idea of a bankrupt late empire Britain as technologically superior to the vigourous 'youthfull' America obscures the reality that so much technology transfer actually flowed the other way In radar and sonar in intelligence cryptography and of course on the atomic bomb the main result of US entry into the war was to enable the Americans to take tutelage catch up and modernize Yet even at the time the image of Britain as a faltering dinosaur dominated public perception on both sides For Edgerton paradoxical paranoia about falling behind in weapons science is what may well have drove investment in secret weapons and war machines – an investment at least on par with Hitler's better known secret weapon mania and arguably an overinvestmentBy extension to the Social Democratic era that followed Edgerton shows how crucial wartime mobilisation and militarism really was in the drift leftward not a welfare state so much as a warfare state This crucial idea the social progressivity of the military industrial complex – is not one the contemporary pseudo pacifist left is keen to entertain Beveridge et al were building “not a Welfare State but a Warfare State” in his words emphatically in context relative to totalitarianism; ie not a social safety net so much as a harness to mobilize total employment to the task at hand Self sufficiency in lieu of trade only really makes sense as a lingering UK value in strategic termsHere the idea that the British Empire could have won World War II in Europe unilaterally without any American intervention at all is credibly presented than I've ever seen The hoards may accuse him of nationalism but I think they're missing the point he's rescuing the visibility of the country which actually fought the war – The Empire – and revealing what a novelty the UK nation state and its islander national identity really is; a Britishness explicitly exclusive of Anglo Canadians Australians and the rest was a novelty indeed Whereas at the time as one of Edgerton's wiser 1940 Punch cartoons has it “We stand alone only the billion and a half of us”So why not some revisionism on 1940? So much of the conventional narrative comes from Churchill himself – by which he emerges as the preiminent hero – that it's hard to say what else we would expect him to tell us Judged by their full participation in the pre war arms race Churchill's predecessors of the thirties were not according to Edgerton the luddites and anti mechanisation dinosaurs pre supposed as such by the very title of Churchill's 1938 polemic While England Slept As he declared in the Commons “History shall judge you harshly for I shall write that history” As an American Briton determined to definitively tie Britain to American power his rhetoric rationlised a strategic neediness in the English people that still drives the special relationship todayThe lesson here is that industrial strategy matters as I've argued about the CF 35s procurement is not simply buying a product off the shelf in the market place A native defence industrial base is invaluable in its own right whether measured against enemies or – as we see here so vividly in the London Washington dynamic – with allies alike The implications of transactions for vendors are strategic variables in their own right; they have to be planned A economics of defence must be a planned economy; this is not a popular approach today to say the least But we're paying the costs in Canada For example what of Ottawa's Silicon Valley North? It seems hard to deny defence IT spending was a key spark; now that it's unravelled how ready for the era of cyberwar can Ottawa really be? Well I know China is certainly ready and given their neighbourhood and 20th century history with surviving it who could blame them? Certainly in aerospace and above all in civil nuclear energy post war Canada's high tech prosperity were directly the spoils of an agressively RD led Imperial industrial strategy we've left too forgotten to creditCanada too is better understood as a conseuence of the story Edgerton tells in our poverty of strategic culture and our semi colonial eager beaver assumption that the grownups in London and Washington will know what to do – or that even if they don't we can safely sit out from it all I've written elsewhere of my conviction that the reason Canadian foreign policy – or at least public opnion about it – so strongly resembles post war German and Japanese pseudo pacifist multilateralism is that like them anglo Canadians too 'lost the war' It was our Empire too and when the war was over we'd lost it – despite our most entheusiastic popular imperialism having raised arguably the largest all voluntary army in world history twice Legal definition of a separate Canadian citizenship would arguably not have been politically salable in Ontario or the Maritimes for Mackenzie King's Liberals prior to the War but was self evident in 1948 If the UK nationality was a post war novelty then so by way of geopolitical orphanhood was ours The Aussies have never been confused about that of course but in this regard their War is as forgotten to Anglo American Atlanticist historiography as our ownReality is that while Gibraltar never fell but the vaunted 'Gibraltar of the East' at Singapore certainly did Our deliciously revisionist author locates the true nadir of British fortunes in the war catastrophic naval defeat by Japan by early 1942 In the Churchillian memory the Indian Ocean theatre is a sideshow we scarcely really think of Britain as a player in the Pacific the 'Americans' War' but that's only because their setbacks at Singapore Hong Kong even at Trincomalee were all so spectacularly decisive with the sinking at sea of flagship HMS Prince of Wales her cutting edge radar malfunctioning and anti air gunners proving unready To the Japanese it was European colonialism in Asia which formed the Main Adversary Churchill loudly dismissed Ghandi as a terrorist for example and had the Japanese a clear opening they might well have sought to adopt the Congress Party as a proxy – as Stallin in the event made sure to do Churchill's memoirs may well rather dwell on the Battle of Britain but to Edgerton these naval defeats cast a far longer shadow ending the RN's two century hegemony over a whole hemesphere leaving the post war end of Empire a forgone conclusion – and having nothing at all to do with any unpreparedness of appeasement Midway was no predictable as a victory and American tribulations around the Asian littoral ever since are largely a matter of its grasping often absent mindedly to pick up the pieces amid a vacuum left by unforseeable and basically spontaneous British combustionIn sum our Empire had a hip tech led strategy after all but still lost WW2 in weak leadership at sea to the United StatesSo the Clauswitzian lesson here is simply that battles matter; so refreshing to read after decades of Marxist or Neo liberal materialism and economic determinism about global power Battles don't matter cumulatively necessarily but uite often as decisive fulcrums where so very much is prone to random chance This debate echoes Roman historiography where the causative weight of far from inevitable battlefield disasters – especially at Adrianople 378 – have long been cast as mere symptoms of inexorable social or economic decline at least since Edward Gibbon invented modern academic history in his 1776 classic I've raised this dilemma with my History students this semester just because there are systemic implications trending human societies towards some configuration technolgical implications sociological implications does exclude a decisive role for random chanceThe same point applies to business strategy or social policy any other strategic context it is a profound fallacy to assume cause and effect are proportionate Obscurities can have comprehensive conseuences New technology is not destiny – and not necessarily even a strategyIt's why history is inherently of the humanities history is a literature and certainly not a social science Theories of history are not falsifiable because history does not repeat itself when it does unexpectedly Even if we could press a 'rewind' button and rerun the same events we would almost certainly not see causititve variables yield the same resultsSometimes stuff happens Pakistan: Islam, politics, and national solidarity (Praeger special studies) sitting at the heart of a global production Piliers de l'islam : Guide du jeune musulman (Islam) systemThe British indeed Churchillian vision of war and modernity was challenged by repeated defeat by less well euipped enemies Yet the end result was a vindication of this vision Like the United States a powerful Britain won a cheap victory whi BY PERMISSION FROM wwwpaper trailscaOriginal Post L'Islam : Découverte et rencontre shallow review I Les Arts de l'islam suppose – mostly Guide de l'Hygiène et de la Propreté en Islam summary but Le monde de l'Islam. such a great book I've been reading while knocking around NZ one last time in my Guide du pèlerin surf van and today – Lest We Forget – I can't resist throwing it up hereWith a blizzard of fact and annecdote Edgerton here demolishes the traditional narrative the British have told themselves that after the fall of France amid the Battle of Britain under threat of Hitler's unrealized OP SEALION invasion plans in 1941 they Le dictionnaire de Dieu : Judaïsme, christianisme, islam stood “alone” as a plucky underdog holding out against ruthlessly efficient mechanized Nazi blitzkrieg In reality Britain was far from alone as Canadian know well believing this Introduction to Islam story reuires writing Canada out of the war along with India British Africa and the rest of the roughly one uarter of the manpower of the human race It rests on a very twentieth century and very English assumption that only white peoples in Europe countries count Le guide détaillé de l'Oumra et du Hadj strategicallyIf legeandary Kiwi born catoonist David Low is a good example it also rested on the very colonial England worship of the rest of us 'Britons' elsewhere in defferential perennially Encyclopedie de L'Islam, Tome X, Livraison 163-164 small minded uarters of the empire If the Anglo American Atlanticists have written us out of our central role in world history we've only been too keen to helpMost bizarrely it rests on a peculiarly un English underrating of the The Encyclopedia of Islam Volume II C-G strategic weight of The Encyclopedia of Islam Volume IV, IRAN-KHA sea power the Royal Navy was never The Encyclopedia of Islam Volume 1 A-B seriously challenged by Germany and as long as it controlled Europe's coastline it was the Europe under economic The Encyclopedia of Islam Volume III, H-IRAM siege not the British Isles The U boat threat famously at least among RCN Encyclopédie de l'Islam : fascicules 115 et 116 sailors claimed by Churchill as “the only thing which really worried” him can be disposed of with Dictionnaire des symboles musulmans : Rites, mystique et civilisation some Encyclopédie de la Femme en Islam (les Six Volumes solid data for the reliability of food imports; the U Boats were always threat than blow the marine euivalent of V1 and V2 rocketry Their destruction was L'Islam dans la cité spectacular but not Les guides bleus. Algérie et tunisie strategically decisive in a war attrition Allied Dictionnaire élémentaire de l'Islam shipyards were always certain to win Meanwhile the RN home fleet's blockade of Nazi Europe put far Guide religieux de la France. etabli pour le catholicisme par louis chaigne, pour le protestantisme par jean balédent, pour le judaïsme par josy ... pour l'islam par noureddine ben mahmoud serious constraint on Axis access to resources as the economic data here bear out and was Encyclopedie de L'Islam, Tome X, Livraison 167-168 so complete it was never even contested even by the great Bismark Perhaps modern media are part of the problem battlefleets that rarely fight Guide du médecin nomade : Aphorismes suffer from an availability problem to radio listeners; we don't hear about them much Guide du monde arabe en France so they don't Mathnawî, la quête de l'Absolu T1: Tomes 1, Livres I à III seem to matter In fact Le jardin des roses et des fruits strategic outcomes are not incremmental Apprendre à apprendre : Psychologie et spiritualité sur la voie soufie sum of operations war is not tennis and the winner of the most battles does not necessarily win overall at all It's unwise to make Vie et Enseignement de Tierno Bokar : Le Sage de Bandiagara strategy by publicity – but that is generally the Les Soufis scheme of democracies' historiography at very leastIn reality George VI's realm has to be graded the favourite to prevail throughout the conflict and was much Contes soufis stronger than generally realised both in its materiel on hand the industrial mass of war production and technological Rûmî et le soufisme sophistication On this too Low's typical chagrin another 1940 cartoon juxtoposing planes and tanks with a threadbear infantryman lists the L'Incendie de l'âme : L'aventure spirituelle de Rûmî score as “Machines 1 Heroes 0 ” was merely compounding the conventional wisdom already Livre des Haltes (Le) - Tome I shared by the Whitehall elite – and as Edgerton documents reflected in British resources allocation for years already The reason the Home Guard was Chant soufi (Le) (Samâ`) + 1 CD AUDIO so notoriously Le Réveil des Cœurs short of rifles was not unreadiness but the higher priority of heavy mechanisation in lieu of L'homme de lumière dans le soufisme iranien small arms Our idea of a bankrupt late empire Britain as technologically Délivrance de l'erreur (La) (Bilingue) superior to the vigourous 'youthfull' America obscures the reality that Aqida Asharite, les Bases de la Croyance Authentique, Credo des Musulmans Sunnites so much technology transfer actually flowed the other way In radar and Le Jardin des Fruits: Histoires édifiantes et spirituelles sonar in intelligence cryptography and of course on the atomic bomb the main result of US entry into the war was to enable the Americans to take tutelage catch up and modernize Yet even at the time the image of Britain as a faltering dinosaur dominated public perception on both Contes derviches sides For Edgerton paradoxical paranoia about falling behind in weapons Thérapie de l'âme science is what may well have drove investment in Vie et enseignement de Tierno Bokar. Le Sage de Ba secret weapons and war machines – an investment at least on par with Hitler's better known Ibn Arabî et le voyage sans retour secret weapon mania and arguably an overinvestmentBy extension to the Social Democratic era that followed Edgerton A la Recherche du Trésor Caché : Une conférence de Soufis shows how crucial wartime mobilisation and militarism really was in the drift leftward not a welfare Les étapes vers l'éveil state Le livre de la guérison soufie so much as a warfare Les Sept cités de l'amour state This crucial idea the Le Soufisme. Voie intérieure de l'islam social progressivity of the military industrial complex – is not one the contemporary pseudo pacifist left is keen to entertain Beveridge et al were building “not a Welfare State but a Warfare State” in his words emphatically in context relative to totalitarianism; ie not a Le livre du mim, du waw et du num social Le soufisme: Histoire, fondements et pratiques de l'islam spirituel safety net Le Langage des oiseaux so much as a harness to mobilize total employment to the task at hand Self Secrets des noms de Dieu (Les) sufficiency in lieu of trade only really makes La Science Soufie De L'accomplissement De Soi sense as a lingering UK value in Mathnawî, la quête de l'absolu T2: Tome 2, Livres IV à VI strategic termsHere the idea that the British Empire could have won World War II in Europe unilaterally without any American intervention at all is credibly presented than I've ever Le traité de l'unité seen The hoards may accuse him of nationalism but I think they're missing the point he's rescuing the visibility of the country which actually fought the war – The Empire – and revealing what a novelty the UK nation Les Cinq piliers de l'islam state and its islander national identity really is; a Britishness explicitly exclusive of Anglo Canadians Australians and the rest was a novelty indeed Whereas at the time as one of Edgerton's wiser 1940 Punch cartoons has it “We Enseignements soufis stand alone only the billion and a half of us”So why not Islam, l'autre visage : Entretiens avec Rachel et Jean-Pierre Cartier some revisionism on 1940? So much of the conventional narrative comes from Churchill himself – by which he emerges as the preiminent hero – that it's hard to Le Livre du Repentir say what else we would expect him to tell us Judged by their full participation in the pre war arms race Churchill's predecessors of the thirties were not according to Edgerton the luddites and anti mechanisation dinosaurs pre Colère, la rancune & la jalousie (La) : Comment les vaincre par l'exercice spirituel ? supposed as La Simiya: Science et magie des lettres such by the very title of Churchill's 1938 polemic While England Slept As he declared in the Commons “History Les 99 beaux noms de dieu shall judge you harshly for I Jihâd et contemplation. Vie et enseignement d'un soufi au temps des croisades shall write that history” As an American Briton determined to definitively tie Britain to American power his rhetoric rationlised a Epître de Jérusalem : Al-Risâla al-Qudsiyya strategic neediness in the English people that Rubâi'yât still drives the Traité de l'amour special relationship todayThe lesson here is that industrial Les illuminations de la Mecque : Al-Futûhât al-Makkiyya strategy matters as I've argued about the CF 35s procurement is not La voie du chercheur simply buying a product off the Le mémorial des saints shelf in the market place A native defence industrial base is invaluable in its own right whether measured against enemies or – as we DIAZBOULE MOURIDE: UNE EXHORTATION AU MOURIDE POUR SE METTRE AU SERVICE DES SAINTS see here Paroles de vérité: Choisies et réunies par Bahram Elahi so vividly in the London Washington dynamic – with allies alike The implications of transactions for vendors are Mourir et Renaître : La voie soufie strategic variables in their own right; they have to be planned A economics of defence must be a planned economy; this is not a popular approach today to La clef de la réalisation spirituelle et l'illumination des âmes [Miftâh al-falâh wa misbâh al-arwâh] say the least But we're paying the costs in Canada For example what of Ottawa's Silicon Valley North? It Le Soufisme, coeur de l'Islam: Suivi d'extraits du Diwan du cheikh Ahmed ben Mustapha al-Alawi seems hard to deny defence IT Le traité de l'unité spending was a key Le Cantique des Oiseaux. illustré par la peinture en Islam d'orient spark; now that it's unravelled how ready for the era of cyberwar can Ottawa really be? Well I know China is certainly ready and given their neighbourhood and 20th century history with Instants soufis surviving it who could blame them? Certainly in aerospace and above all in civil nuclear energy post war Canada's high tech prosperity were directly the La voie et la loi : Ou Le maître et le juriste spoils of an agressively RD led Imperial industrial Epître de la Science sacrée strategy we've left too forgotten to creditCanada too is better understood as a conseuence of the Bien portant avec la médecine du prophète story Edgerton tells in our poverty of Bonne Intention, la sincérité & la véridicité (La) : Les trois facteurs clés dans l'acceptation des actes auprès de Dieu strategic culture and our Lettres d'un maître soufi semi colonial eager beaver assumption that the grownups in London and Washington will know what to do – or that even if they don't we can L'arbre et les quatre oiseaux , 1984 safely TRÈS SAINTES INSPIRATIONS OU L'ÉVEIL DE LA CONSCIENCE (LES) sit out from it all I've written elsewhere of my conviction that the reason Canadian foreign policy – or at least public opnion about it – Mojud : L'homme à la vie inexplicable - Réédition so La profession de foi strongly resembles post war German and Japanese pseudo pacifist multilateralism is that like them anglo Canadians too 'lost the war' It was our Empire too and when the war was over we'd lost it – despite our most entheusiastic popular imperialism having raised arguably the largest all voluntary army in world history twice Legal definition of a Ouverture Divine : Dans Ce Qui Est Utile pour le Disciple Tijani (l ) separate Canadian citizenship would arguably not have been politically La Conférence des oiseaux: Récit théâtral de Jean-Claude Carrière. Inspiré par le poème de Farid Uddin Attar "Manteq Ol-Teyr" salable in Ontario or the Maritimes for Mackenzie King's Liberals prior to the War but was B.A.-BA du soufisme self evident in 1948 If the UK nationality was a post war novelty then Les Cinq piliers de l'islam (Liens) so by way of geopolitical orphanhood was ours The Aussies have never been confused about that of course but in this regard their War is as forgotten to Anglo American Atlanticist historiography as our ownReality is that while Gibraltar never fell but the vaunted 'Gibraltar of the East' at Singapore certainly did Our deliciously revisionist author locates the true nadir of British fortunes in the war catastrophic naval defeat by Japan by early 1942 In the Churchillian memory the Indian Ocean theatre is a Histoire du judaïsme sideshow we Le Judaïsme pour les nuls scarcely really think of Britain as a player in the Pacific the 'Americans' War' but that's only because their L'Antisémitisme expliqué aux jeunes setbacks at Singapore Hong Kong even at Trincomalee were all Les Rites de naissance dans le judaïsme so Le Petit Livre des Grandes Fetes Religieuses spectacularly decisive with the Le Judaïsme: Histoire, fondements et pratiques de la religion juive. (Eyrolles Pratique) sinking at Le Judaïsme : pratiques, fêtes et symboles sea of flagship HMS Prince of Wales her cutting edge radar malfunctioning and anti air gunners proving unready To the Japanese it was European colonialism in Asia which formed the Main Adversary Churchill loudly dismissed Ghandi as a terrorist for example and had the Japanese a clear opening they might well have Le judaïsme sought to adopt the Congress Party as a proxy – as Stallin in the event made Le judaïsme sure to do Churchill's memoirs may well rather dwell on the Battle of Britain but to Edgerton these naval defeats cast a far longer Massada, histoire et symbole shadow ending the RN's two century hegemony over a whole hemesphere leaving the post war end of Empire a forgone conclusion – and having nothing at all to do with any unpreparedness of appeasement Midway was no predictable as a victory and American tribulations around the Asian littoral ever Histoire du judaïsme: « Que sais-je ? » n° 3940 since are largely a matter of its grasping often absent mindedly to pick up the pieces amid a vacuum left by unforseeable and basically Le messie et son prophète : Aux origines de l'islam, tome 2, Du Muhammad des Califes au Muhammad de l'histoire spontaneous British combustionIn Les Petits Livres de la Kabbale: Genèse et Tsimtsoum: La Cabale pour Tous, Expliquée Simplement, Comprenez Facilement les bases de la Mystique Juive. sum our Empire had a hip tech led Les grands courants de la mystique juive strategy after all but Réparer les corps, réparer le monde: Huit portes pour accéder à la sagesse still lost WW2 in weak leadership at Le Séfer Yetsirah: Le Livre kabbalistique de la Formation sea to the United StatesSo the Clauswitzian lesson here is INTRODUCTION AUX SEPHIROTH 2 simply that battles matter; La Gnose de Princeton. Des savants à la recherche d'une religion so refreshing to read after decades of Marxist or Neo liberal materialism and economic determinism about global power Battles don't matter cumulatively necessarily but uite often as decisive fulcrums where Concepts Fondamentaux de la Kabbale: Elargissez Votre Vision Intérieure so very much is prone to random chance This debate echoes Roman historiography where the causative weight of far from inevitable battlefield disasters – especially at Adrianople 378 – have long been cast as mere Usages Mago-Théurgiques des Psaumes selon la Kabbale Judaïque et Chrétienne. Sefer Shimush Tehilim & le Livre d’Or. symptoms of inexorable Médecine et Kabbale : le pouvoir des lettres social or economic decline at least Les Grandes Lumières: Les dix Sefiroth de la Kabbale (Collection Classique) since Edward Gibbon invented modern academic history in his 1776 classic I've raised this dilemma with my History Le philosophe et le cabaliste : Exposition d'un débat students this Concerto pour quatre consonnes sans voyelles semester just because there are Secrets de Kabbale - Livre 5 Dévarim (Le Deutéronome) (Collection Classique / Edilivre) systemic implications trending human Le nom de Dieu et la théorie kabbalistique du langage societies towards ESSENCE DE LA KABBALE some configuration technolgical implications Fragments D'Enseignements Rosicruciens, Enseignements Croises Entre Kabbale, Hermetisme Theurgie sociological implications does exclude a decisive role for random chanceThe ADN juif, génétique et kabbale (Science et Kabbale t. 1) same point applies to business L'épître des sept voies strategy or Rabbi Siméon bar Yochaï et la Cabbale social policy any other MYSTERES DE LA KABBALE strategic context it is a profound fallacy to assume cause and effect are proportionate Obscurities can have comprehensive conseuences New technology is not destiny – and not necessarily even a La Kabbale en toute Simplicité: D’Abraham Au Baal Hasoulam strategyIt's why history is inherently of the humanities history is a literature and certainly not a Le Zohar, tome 2 : Vayera - Hayé Sarah - Toldot - Vayetsé - Vayichlah social Les Anges de la Creation. science Theories of history are not falsifiable because history does not repeat itself when it does unexpectedly Even if we could press a 'rewind' button and rerun the Le Zohar : Cantique des cantiques same events we would almost certainly not Le Nom de Dieu et la théorie kabbalistique du langage (Petite collection) see causititve variables yield the Les Assemblées initiatiques du Zohar: Quatre textes ésotériques du Livre du Zohar same resultsSometimes Les Chemins de la Kabbale stuff happens

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